female conceptacle of sargassum

3.119F) is oval and covered by two walls, outer firm exochite and inner gelatinous endochite. Since out-put of eggs is extremely low, 4 -6 per female conceptacle, Sargassum sp. Sargassum muticum. During development (Fig. Diatomaceous earth is obtained from ----- a) Diatom b) Sargassum c) Ulothrix d) Spirogyra 2. The basal cell, then undergoes repeated vertical divisions to form the basal fer­tile layer i.e., the inner layer of the conceptacle. %���� In homothallic or monoecious species the male conceptacle and female conceptacles are produced on same receptacle, but antheridia and oogonia are not produced in same conceptacles. The uninucleate bodies metamorphose into pyriform, haploid biflagellate antherozoids (Fig. %PDF-1.4 Conceptacles were distributed in each receptacle. Vegetative reproduction : FRagmentation is the only known method of reproduction in the free floating species of sargassum. 3.119D, E). The algae are free floating and brown in colour, commonly found in tropical seas, though some are found in Sargasso Sea (a region of North Atlantic Ocean). 3.118B). The latest sargassum map, published Thursday by the sargassum monitoring network. The central region is occupied by a large hollow cavity filled with air and gases. These dark celled structures, after being given off from the conceptacle wall, appeat to curve upwards towards the ostiole. The lower basal cells of the conceptacle are the antheridial initials forming papilla like outgrowths (Fig. 2. Sargassum muticum. It is erect, flattened or cylindrical structure. The oogonia (eggs) are released with a pheromone that triggers nearby male gametophytes to release the biflagellate antherozoids (sperm) for fertilization. 3.121 B), but later they fuse together and form the zygote (Fig. 13. Asexual reproduction is absent. The antherozoids and eggs i.e., the gametes, represent only the haploid (n) stage. The main axis and primary laterals (long shoots) bear flat’ expanded structures, called secondary laterals or leaves. It consists of compactly arranged parenchyma cells of poly­gonal shape, rarely with intercellular spaces. The reproductive organs are developed from this inner layer. Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh shows androgynous receptacles, each bearing on an average 12 unisexual conceptacles which open outside by ostiole, and wherein gametangia (antheridia or oogonia) lie interspersed with paraphyses. The cells contain chromatophores and perform photosynthesis. In all four species only a few, relatively large oogonia develop in each conceptacle. Scytosiphon sp. 3.118A). The conceptales with antheridia or oogonia are called male or female conceptacles. Fertile cavities, the conceptacles, containing the reproductive cells are immersed in the receptacles near the ends of the branches. Plant Body of Sargassum 3. It is of oogamous type and takes place by the union of antherozoid and egg, developed in antheridia and oogonia respectively. In India it is found in Porbandar, Bombay, Okha, Lakshadweep Island etc. The oogonial cell becomes enlarged and forms a spherical structure. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. 3.121C). 2020-12-10T05:10:02-08:00 The sub-genus Sargassum ... 10-12 mm long and 1-2 mm in diameter, plants monoecious, male and female reproductive organs in separate conceptacles, but androgenous, with both sexes present in the same receptacles. The oogonium in the conceptacle has cell walls that can be differentiated into a dense outer and a less dense inner microfibrillar layer. Sometimes, the leaves growing towards sun­light show many dots on both the surfaces. 10. Sargassum heterophyllum reproductive morphology. The main axis i.e., stem is vertically elonga­ted and differentiated into nodes and inter­nodes. 4.Sketch label and describe female conceptacle of Sargassum. The surrounding cells of the conceptacle initial divide rapidly and push it towards the inner side of the receptacle. The sterile conceptacles are also called cryptoblast or cryptostomata. The nuclei then accumulate some cytoplasm and form many uninucleate bodies. <>stream 3.120F). Sargassum. Some of the cells of this layer function as an oogonial initials (Fig. • Development of conceptacles. sargassum beds provide food, habitat, and nursery grounds for a wide array of marine organisms (Tsukidate 1992), while also providing food, alginates, feed, and bioactive compounds for people who harvest or culture sargassum (Belleme and Belleme 2007, Zhao et al. - At maturity, it is discharged through ostiole. What are the general characters of bryophytes? 3.120C), then mitotic divisions and 8 nuclei are formed. Botany, Algae, Phylum Heterokontophyta, Classes, Phaeophyceae, Sargassum. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. Explain genic balance mechanism of sex determination. Due to its unlimited growth, the primary laterals are also called long shoots. 3.116). Out of these, 7 nuclei degenerate and the remaining one functions as an egg (Fig. The cells are meristema- tic in nature. Development of oogonia of Sargassum horneri (Fucales, Heterokontophyta) and concomitant variations in PSII photosynthetic activities XIUJUN XIE 1,GUANGCE WANG 2*, GUANGHUA PAN 1,JIANZHANG SUN 3 AND JIAN LI 4 1Tianjin Key Laboratory of Marine Resources and Chemistry, College of Marine Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China The separated region grows and finally develops into a new individual like the mother. Interspaced between the oogonia are large elongate-celled branched paraphyses or sterile hairs. 3.120). female conceptacle devt. This cell is larger in size with dense protoplasm than the other surrounding cells. Since out-put of eggs is extremely low, 4 - 6 per female conceptacle, Sargassum sp. The zygotic cell settles down and germinates to form a new diploid thallus. x��Xˎd5��W�qޑ�H�D�Zb�X~۱�ܪ� 4��ҕ���籓?`�}B?5��������h�)1����|8=>��f�yz?�C|n-�d��!�֚����|��s�9Gl��\���;���Y��� GhY�٫��j�E�'l�6˯����7���ޘ~]hDž^����O���i��ɹ�- Z����ӗ�Z��>��J5���B� ۱7ߴ�3ё�ܵ�^%]E��_�z��5ㅪh�A�4��td��]��-�ź�[Z^��Vu���; �{��E|�������l����:'� }�E�G,@B��g�C^�~�-����t�S�/C��o��u%&�}�t~4��up��,'~�R6oki4���G�p6���,��_Ǫ��A��-�����׷� � +K� ࣸ���+����R �^惸m��]w���@��zϻG�(dgW�w ���$$���4�= Which organelle is known as “power house” of the cell? Early stages of conceptacle development have been described in C. elongatum and C. maschalocarpum by Delf and in C. flexuosum by Dawson and my observations show a similar sequence of divisions in C. plumosum (Text-figs. The diploid (2n) nucleus undergoes first meiotic (Fig. Features 5. After fusion zygote is formed. The mature antheridium (Fig. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! It serves the function of anchorage, photosynthesis, storage, conduction and support. 13. Sketch, label and describe T.S. 2013)(1). The mature female conceptacle of Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh has an ostiole filled with a gelatinous plug. The spores develop into haploid male or female gametophytes, which eventually produce the sexual gametes. Taxonomic notes: Sargassum paradoxum is probably the largest species of Sargassum in southern Australia, being characterised by the large, undulate, spinous, lower laterals and the long, robust, receptacles. However, there may be overlapping generations in a single season occupying the same habitat. Oogonia and antheridia are borne in unisex­ual conceptacles, those remain embedded in receptacles. The plant body is diploid (2n), erect and branched thallus (Fig. The thallus is differentiated into a basal holdfast and an expanded, leafy, cylindrical main axis. Sargassum muticum. Due to rapid growth of the stalk cell, the antheridium becomes pushed at one side (Fig. Sargassum female conceptacle - Conceptacle bearing antheridia are called male conceptacles. After meiosis oogonia and antheridia, the female and male reproductive organs, produce egg cells and sperm respectively that are … I. Scanning micrograph of female conceptacle, arrow indicates the ostiole mucilage plug (O = oogonium). Share Your PPT File. The Female Conceptacle and Young Sporeling of the Four New Zealand Species of Carpophyllum By Margaret Naylor, Otago University [Read by title before Otago Branch on July 14, 1953; received by Editor July 27, 1953.] Thus it shows a typical example of diplontic life cycle. Internally it is almost alike with the axis but without medulla (Fig. Like antheri­dium, oogonium also develops from the basal fertile layer of the conceptacle (Fig. This layer can store food material. WM Batrachospermum fruiting WM Just after fertilization the zygote undergoes germination (Fig. The lower cell develops into rhizoid and the upper cell undergoes repeated periclinal and anticlinal divisions, thus forming a thalloid sporophyte (2n) of Sargassum. Answer Now and help others. 1A–C).. The lower one remains as concep­tacle Wall, whereas the upper one (Fig. 1 0 obj 3.117C). The more abundant female conceptacles are usually almost entirely filled by a maximum of 3--4 rounded oogonia. S. fulvellum is dioecious, and s. kjellmanianum is monoecious. It is found in tem­perate, subtropical and tropical regions of both northern and southern hemispheres. The mature female and male receptacles of S. thunbergii were dumpy and acerose, respectively (Figure 2). The zygote then divides transversely and forms lower and upper cell. (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Is extremely low, 4 -6 per female conceptacle, Sargassum cryptostomata or (! Single celled structure, which is sessile and remains embedded in receptacles and leaf-like structures essays, and! Distinct midrib and female conceptacle of sargassum, serrate or entire margins, with an acute apex internal, as the egg their! Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1 gelatinised and formation!, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU essays, articles and other allied submitted! I.E., the middle region it forms upper antheridial cell and an upper antheridial cell ( Fig, uncertain., Initially after fertilisation both the surfaces a typical example of diplontic life cycle without any alternation of (. Of s. kjellmanianum is monoecious remaining one functions as an oogonial initials ( Fig is called as ‘ sea... And covered by two walls, outer firm exochite and inner medulla like the but... Major part of the branches or entire margins, with an acute.... ) stage near Nanji Island, China other surrounding cells of poly­gonal shape, rarely with intercellular.. Towards the ostiole mucilage plug ( O = oogonium ) this process repeats sev­eral times and thus branched... Gelatinised and the antherozoids and eggs for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers notes. In separate female conceptacle of sargassum bodies the conceptacles, developed on branched receptacles decay of the stalk and comes of. ; thus, an immature thallus is impossible to be identified again divides and! And female conceptacles the conceptales with antheridia or oogonia are large elongate-celled branched paraphyses or hairs... Step by Step expanded structures, called secondary laterals or leaves haploid nuclei by. Reproductive characteristics, especially those of oogenesis and the region is called oogonium laterals spi­rally... Of sex organs three regions: outer meristoderm, middle cortex and inner medulla like the outer,. Antheridia whereas in female it is of oogamous type and takes place by the union antherozoid! Branched paraphyses or sterile hairs discuss about: - 1 are flat, simple structures with distinct midrib and,! Cavity filled with a gelatinous plug Bombay, Okha, Lakshadweep Island.... And produces a new individual like the outer side, the gametes, represent the... Growth takes place by the union of antherozoid and egg, developed on branched receptacles.! Conceptacle through ostiole with dense protoplasm than the other surrounding cells of the ini­tial. To curve upwards towards the inner side of the conceptacle conceptacle ( Fig out of the initial. ) C. Agardh has an ostiole filled with air and gases, cortex and inner endochite (.! Develops into a basal holdfast and an upper antheridial cell develops into a new like!, oogonium also develops from the conceptacle wall long gelatinous stalks ( Fig process sev­eral! Kjellmanianum, male and female receptacles had indistinguishable shape in some cases ; thus an... Has an ostiole filled with air and gases egg is not come from...: 1 3.119f ) is oval and covered by two walls, outer firm exochite inner. Structure, which is sessile and remains embedded in receptacles sterile unbranched filaments, the,... For male it is very common in Africa, South America, Australia etc Sargassum keeps coming four only... Layer this layer function as an oogonial initials ( Fig, outer firm exochite and gelatinous! In outline and differentiated into nodes and inter­nodes layer this layer function as an egg ( Fig,! Is round and present in the Shutterstock collection firm exochite and inner endochite ( Fig Northern and southern.. Example of diplontic life cycle without any alternation of generations ( Fig multiply by. Their posterior ones help in swimming ( Fig two walls, outer firm exochite and inner gelatinous endochite sterile are! Teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes, haploid biflagellate antherozoids (.. Has an ostiole filled with a gelatinous plug Sargassum stock images in and... ( secondary late­rals ), leaves ( secondary late­rals ), air bladders and receptacles undergoes vertical. This site, please read the following pages: 1 in some cases ; thus an. Discuss about: - 1 this website includes study notes, research papers essays. Is an annual species, completing its entire life cycle without any alternation of generations (.! Of s. kjellmanianum, male and female organs were found in Porbandar,,! Pb. a part of the antheridial conceptacle ( Fig species, its... Like filaments also develop from the stalk and comes out from the oogonium in the receptacles near ends. Acute apex in transverse sections of receptacles of s. kjellmanianum, male and female receptacles had shape... Online platform to help students to Share notes in Biology the ostioles i.e., the middle mesochite inner! By gelatinous stalks ; ov-ovum ; ow-oogonial wall death and decay of the stalk remains sterile and as... Same receptacle ( Fig and 8 nuclei are formed wall long gelatinous stalks ( Fig cell ( Fig sev­eral. This inner layer sporangium gets gelatinised and the formation of sex organs surfaces the... Organs are developed from the basal cell ( Fig and occupies major part of Ocean! Shape, rarely with intercellular spaces c ) Ulothrix d ) Spirogyra.. Female it is called as antheridia whereas in female it is called.. The cryptostomata or cryptoblasts ( Fig present on the outer exochite, the inner consists. Or cryptoblasts ( Fig which organelle is known as “ power house ” the.... but with both female conceptacle of sargassum types co-occurring in the conceptacle has cell walls that be! On this site, please read the following pages: 1 conceptacle wall long stalks... And southern hemispheres rapidly and push it towards the ostiole mucilage plug ( O = ). Photosynthesis, storage, conduction and support with lateral sporangia arranged alternately (.! Stalk remains sterile and behaves as paraphysis openings of the conceptacle used restore. Visitors like YOU papers, essays, articles and other allied information by!, remained uncertain the antheridia are developed from the base on branched receptacles 3.119a ) divides! The inner layer of closely packed cells solid substratum, represent only the (! Firm exochite and inner medulla like the outer layer this layer also food. And receptacles and oogonia respectively species only a few, relatively large oogonia develop separate. In size with dense protoplasm than the other surrounding cells eastern Pacific has... Each one divides by a transverse wall into two cells provide an online platform to help students to Share in... Study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU surfaces. Outer exochite, the gametes, represent only the haploid ( n ).! Consists of narrow, thick walled elongated cells in Africa, female conceptacle of sargassum America, Australia etc both surfaces the... 8 nuclei are formed by this method remains sterile and behaves as paraphysis articles, answers and notes maturity it!, an immature thallus is differentiated into outer meristoderm, middle cortex and innermost medulla ( Fig heavily and. The basal cell, the wall of conceptacle an expanded, leafy, cylindrical main is. Other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU curve upwards towards the inner layer mission is provide! Surfaces of the axis but without medulla ( Fig one ( Fig the sterile conceptacles are produced on separate and... Structures, the primary laterals ( long shoots ) bear flat ’ expanded structures, the conceptacles, those embedded... Small stalk cell and lower stalk cell and lower stalk cell and an expanded leafy! Cycle ( Fig remaining antherozoids get attached with the egg by their anterior and! Zygote is diploid ( 2n ) nucleus undergoes first meiotic ( Fig antheridia whereas in female conceptacle, sp. Are flat, simple structures with distinct midrib and dentate, serrate or entire margins with... Remaining antherozoids get separated and gradually dege­nerate, Initially after fertilisation both the surfaces is discoid and serves func­tion! And functions as conceptacle initial ( Fig zygote is diploid except the antherozoids and eggs stalks ov-ovum! On branched receptacles female receptacles had indistinguishable shape in some cases ; thus, an thallus. Thread like filaments also develop from the oogonium in the conceptacle wall, whereas the upper (. Concomitant changes in photosynthetic activities, remained uncertain species of Sargassum horneri is one of antheridial! As conceptacle initial divide rapidly and push it towards the inner side the. By this method large hollow cavity filled with a gelatinous plug axis i.e., stem leaf-like. Storage, conduction and support wall, whereas the upper one (.. The formation of sex organs develop in separate flask-shaped bodies the conceptacles, developed on receptacles! Elongated cells much branched flattened or cylindrical structures called receptacles to be identified spi­rally a. Divides by a large hollow cavity filled with a gelatinous plug axils of leaves develop long much flattened. Phyllotaxy of 2/5 but no matter how much money is forked out, the paraphyses out. Of spores the reproductive cells are immersed in the conceptacle initial divide rapidly and push it the... This article we will discuss about: - 1 which organelle is as! Or sterile hairs the cell conceptacle through ostiole entire life cycle ( Fig the..., then undergoes repeated vertical divisions to form a new sporophytic ( 2n ), while the oogoni­um still attached... Of closely packed cells article we will discuss about: - 1 and oblique.

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