late blight of potato

Which organelle is known as “power house” of the cell? A whitish growth of spore-producing structures may appear at the margin of the lesions on the underleaf surfaces. Late Blight. The second view is that the thick-walled resting oospores which are found in abundance in the infected tubers are the important overwintering structures. American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, MN. The scientific name of late blight is Phytophthora infestans, appropriately named for its terrible habits. Consequently the tubers remain small and reduced in weight. (2009) estimated that the global costs and losses due to late blight may take 16% of all global potato production. The disease first appears on the tops of the plants generally after the blossoming period but mostly in the month of January. Moreover, the temperature during the day is never above 22°-23°C which is favourable for the appearance of disease. Soft rot causes the stem to collapse quickly, turning into dark brown. Secondary fungi and bacteria (particularly Erwinia species) often invade potato tubers and produce rotting that results in great losses during storage, transit, and marketing. The hyphae are both intercellular and intracellular. Once infected, the whole plant may quickly collapse and what appear to be healthy tubers may rot in storage. It becomes activated at the time of germination of the diseased seed tubers among the planting stock or waste tubers in dump heaps or infected tubers remaining in the ground after a previous crop. Other devastating late blight outbreaks have been reported around the world, causing food insecurity, hunger (International Potato Center 2007), and oftentimes crippling the local potato industry. It is caused by zoospores produced in foliage lesions (blighted tops) or present in the contaminated soil. The minimum relative humidity required is 91 percent with an optimum of 100 percent. Potato tubers are often infected in the field after the tops have been blighted. It is a serious disease for potatoes and outdoor tomatoes, but … In this article we will discuss about the late blight of potato caused by fungi. Late blight can attack many varieties of potatoes and most farmers use large quantities of fungicides to control this disease. It affect s all potato producers (small-scale, commercial, seed producers, even urban producers) and the annual losses in developing countries are estimated at EUR 10 billion. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Late blight, a plant disease caused by the water mold. The tubers should be dipped in 1: 1,000 mercuric chloride solution for 90 minutes before storage. Finally, a rapid and general blighting of foliage occurs. Grosier (1934) who studied the biology of Phytophthora infestans reported that the sporangia are formed within a temperature range of 3° to 26°C with an optimum of 18° to 22°C. Winter is the main potato growing season in India. The process is repeated. This is accomplished by spraying with herbicides or flame throwers or by the use of mechanical vine beaters. According to Sato (1979), wet cool soil promotes infection but wet warm soil lowers it because cool water at 16°C or below 12-14°C favours indirect germination of sporangia and prolongs motility of zoospores. Melhus (1915) confirmed De Bary’s observation. Therefore the complete control of blight is accomplished by the application of protectant fungicides. The late blight epidemics are thus rare in the plains in India. US-23). It is worldwide in its distribution. Host Crops and Plants Above that temperature most sporangia produce a germ tube directly. Avoidance of injuries to tubers at harvest is also important. The mature sporangia are readily detached and spread by splashing rain or air currents to new potato plants (F1 and a). The released zoospores, after a brief period of activity in rain water or dew come to rest. Disease is initiated by fungus spores or "inoculum" produced on the surface of living, infected plant tissue. Botany, Plant Pathology, Potato, Late Blight of Potato. Both sexual oospores and asexual sporangia are dispersed by the wind to nearby plants, in which infection may occur within a few hours. Mistiming of sprays may have serious consequences for late blight control in N.E.U.S.A. 22.7 E) of the pathogen pushing out through the stomata. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important food and economic product in the world.Potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating oomycete disease resulting in potato stem and leaf death, and tuber rot.In Europe in the late 1840s, the late blight caused the potato to collapse to trigger Irish great famine []. According to De Bary (1876), the mycelium overwinters in the infected tubers. At the planting time, the resting oospore germinates. It is of common occurrence both in cold as well as in warm regions in India and abroad where, potatoes and tomatoes are grown. When the late blight occurs, the plants often die in the short term. 4. The most prominent initial signs of late blight are brown spots or disease spots on plant stems. Name the types of nitrogenous bases present in the RNA. In case you were wondering, late blight is the plant disease that is responsible for the famous Irish potato famine of 1845. Healthy Plants • Healthy World. The disease can occur in the seedling stage and the adult stage. In other California potato-growing areas its occurrence is sporadic, depending on the presence of the pathogen and cool, damp weather conditions. Early detection and reporting of late blight will help protect the Western Australian potato … It is worldwide in its distribution. The spraying should start when the plants are 8 inches tail. Cool and moist nights are thus favourable for the formation and germination of zoospores. Late blight, also called potato blight, disease of potato and tomato plants that is caused by the water mold Phytophthora infestans. Oomycetes are fungus-like organisms also called water molds, but they are not true fungi. Potato or tomato plants that are infected may rot within two weeks. Various methods of control of the disease are known. The conditioning factor is the favourable environment. Early blight is a common foliage disease of potato and tomato. The germ tubes show rapid growth at 21°C . This measure will eliminate direct infection. The process is repeated. The disease can be managed with a timely application of fungicide, though epidemics can occur rapidly once crops are infected. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. 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