comma before including

With the word “including,” you’re introducing examples. Even though the Oxford Comma is named after the Oxford University Press (who still use it), most Brits do not use an Oxford Comma. A compound sentence is one that contains two or more independent clauses joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and. It’s a style choice. If you removed the comma from… This clues us into the fact that we are dealing with restrictive phrases, and that means we should not insert a comma. Comma before or after including? There are strict rules that govern when you can (and can't) use commas. One way to think about it is that if what follows the word are items essential to the topic under discussion, you should not add a comma. Yes and no. Don’t use a comma before which when it’s used to pose an indirect question. Just wondering if you could give me some guidance - I thought that you don't need a comma but am I right? Source(s): https://shrinke.im/a0KcY. Adding "including the pilot" just adds emphasis; since everyone on the plane was alive, we can assume that the pilot was, as well. Posted on Published: August 23, 2020 Categories English. Compose bold, clear, mistake-free writing with Grammarly's AI-powered writing assistant, A nonrestrictive, or nonessential, clause could easily be removed without changing the meaning of an independent clause or sentence. In sentences with the structure of our example, if there is no comma before as, then as means “in the way that” or “while.” When you insert a comma before as, its meaning changes to “because.” If we return to the idea that commas exist to add clarity to a sentence, it’s obvious why: the lack of a comma pulls the eye along the sentence to the end without stopping, so that we know all the ideas it contains are strongly connected. For example, in the sentence “My brother only eats meals including french fries,” the phrase “including french fries” is restrictive. A lot of people have strong feelings about putting a comma before and in a list. [We rented lodging for our ski trip to Utah in Mar… Rule #3: Use a Comma Before a Quotation “Mushrooms such as the truffe blanche d'Alba are too expensive to be used daily.” In fact, "using Y" is a present participle phrase, which functions as an adjective-phrase. A nonessential clause could also be written as a parenthetical or placed between em dashes. Hope this helped. Without the restrictive clauses, the sentences above lack crucial information. Don’t place a comma before which when which is part of a prepositional phrase. Use a comma before “including” and “such as” when followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause. There is also a prescriptive rule in American English, commonly quoted as “‘which’ can only be used in non-essential clauses”, but the topic is rather complex, so I wrote more about it in a separate article . Use a comma after a dependent clause when it comes before the independent clause. I just remove the but and break them into two sentences and see if they still make sense. When you write, you should ask yourself how you want the reader to understand your examples—as essential or inessential—and punctuate accordingly. Correct comma replacement depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause. If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. Example sentences with the word including. More examples: Everyone survived, including the family dog. There are strict rules that govern when you can (and can't) use commas. In the second sentence, we know that the actress’s ability to make people cry is only one reason she’s a famous speaker. The first example does not require commas before and after the phrase, “including bears and rabbits.” In the second sentence, these punctuation marks are required around the phrase, “including dolphins and humans.” The G8 countries including France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and Russia participated in the G8 summit held at New Delhi. 2018-05-24 16:21 #0 by: Evelina Use a comma before “including” and “such as” when followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause. To understand what that is, we need to learn about participles: According to the Grammar Desk Reference , “Participles take two forms: present participles always end in -ing, and past participles usually end in -d or -ed” (2). A comma (,) generally indicates pauses in speech. Whether “including” requires a comma will depend on what the word is doing in your sentence. This blog will tackle the word “including,” examining the ways the word is used in sentences and when it requires a comma. In general, that is not introduced by a comma, as this would separate the two sentences which that (conjunction) links. It’s more of a guideline. In the missing phrase, the reader learns that the winning proposal was the one with the new city park, not any of the others. Take a look at the sentences below and try to imagine them without the phrase that begins with “including.”. On the other hand, if “including” is the start of a phrase that is essential to your sentence’s meaning, you should not add a comma. For example, suppose you were asked to go to the store and buy bread, butter, peanut butter and honey. Ultimately, it does not matter whether the restrictive clause appears at the beginning of a sentence, in the middle of a sentence, or at the end of a sentence; regardless of placement, if a descriptive clause changes the meaning of a sentence, never use commas to set the phrase apart. Is there a comma before including? Are you going to buy 3 items or 4? For example: “Jack tried a new diet, but he still gained weight.” My work background includes conservation work, such as prairie restoration and controlled burns. Many world-renowned athletes, such as Lionel Messi and Michael Phelps,are also among the richest people on Earth. 3 4 5. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. Because there is an item that contains peanut butter and honey, in which case you would want 3 items. One meaning is related to time. My understanding is that if the subordinate clause follows the main clause, no comma precedes the conjunction; however, I saw the following sentence in the Q&A and am now confused. It depends, entirely, on the context in which you are putting the word "even." Whether or not you put a comma before and depends on how you’re using and.There’s no single rule that applies to all situations. no. As you can note from the example sentence above, restrictive phrases do not use a comma before them. The choice between an em dash, parentheses, or a comma becomes a stylistic decision—all three forms of punctuation serve the same purpose in this context. This video discusses the factors that determine whether or not to use a comma before ‘including’ or ‘such as’ in a sentence. The words “giant plate of spaghetti” is a phrase, while “I ate the giant plate of spaghetti” is a clause. How to use including in a sentence. My suggestion: No comma before "if" Sentence 3 is a bit more complicated: You can substitute dark chocolate for white chocolate or any of your favourite type of chocolate if you prefer. When should you use a comma? 22 Responses to “Comma Before But” Jenxi on February 19, 2014 8:26 am. The annexes are part of the contract. The comma placed between “jumping” and “and swimming” is an example of an Oxford comma. It’s me, Marcel. In this usage, it’s an adverb. ü Where the clause before/after the name is not essential. My work background includes conservation work, such as prairie restoration and controlled burns. You can safely delete it if you want without losing the context. a. Typically, a restrictive phrase using this word would take the form “that include” (or “that includes” or “that included”) instead of “including.”, Rewritten to match that pattern, our example sentence about bagpipes would look like this: “Jennifer hates listening to songs that include bagpipes.”, While both forms are grammatical, you would be best served to rephrase any sentences that contain a restrictive clause or phrase beginning with “including.”. No comma is used before “such as” or “including” when a sentence wouldn’t make sense without the words that follow. between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.. the height, width, or depth; in a study by Spencer, Girard, and Singh (2010) to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause, that is, a clause that embellishes a sentence but if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence intact. Chief among them is that the need for commas is primarily determined by the need for clarity. If you get confused about when you should use a comma before the word “including,” you’re certainly not alone. Mammals including bears and rabbits have fur. 0 0. michael p. In my previous roles as new media producer with Rosetta Stone, director of marketing for global ventures with The Juilliard School, and vice president of digital strategy with Up & Coming Media, I helped develop the voice for international brands. Adding or not adding a comma is largely a grammatical preference. Main Takeaways: Place a comma before which when which precedes a nonrestrictive clause. Is there a comma before including? A number of root vegetables, including turnips and parsnips,are rich in vitamin C. The sentence, “The proposal won more votes,” leaves out crucial information needed to describe the proposal that won. If it is part of a non-restrictive or unessential clause or phrase, you need a comma. I’m as happy as a clam. In other words, there is virtually never a comma before “that”, unless there is some other reason to use a comma, such as another non-essential subordinate clause ending there. It could be excluded as well, resulting in the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping and swimming.” Sometimes, whether one puts a comma before "including" or not can affect the meaning of the sentence. That last comma before the “and” is called a serial comma, Oxford comma, or Harvard comma. ü Where the sentence is focussing on a particular person. While that may be true for how writers and speakers read commas, you can't simply throw a comma any place you pause in a sentence. 2018-05-24 16:21 #0 by: Evelina Use a comma before “including” and “such as” when followed by a nonrestrictive, nonessential phrase or clause. Can you imagine the first sentence without the comma? Hey fellow Linguaholics! From my home office in Maui, Hawaii, I currently work on freelance and ghostwriting projects. In this case, the comma is necessary. Use such as to provide specific examples of something you’re talking about. Comma before including? Place a comma before which when which precedes a nonrestrictive clause. I don't want to write We focused on X and used Y. because I find it ambiguous: it is unclear whether Y was done to achieve X, or Y was done in addition to X. I don't want to write We focused on X using Y. because it is then unclear whether I used Y myself, or simply that I was interested in "X using Y". Comma before including? One example illustrated Secretary Pompeo’s preference for the use of the Oxford comma: “The wartime rations included cabbage, turnips, and bread.” In honor of the Secretary, today we are including our article about commas in a series of three or more items that we first published on January 17, 2007. Asked by Wiki User. Is it grammatically correct to put a comma before "and"? It’s worth noting that while they are grammatically correct, sentences with a restrictive phrase and the word “including” look and sound a little odd. Once you do this, commas you find will fall into place like expertly arranged dominoes. if but before is a sentence on its on and after but is a sentence on its own then put a comma before but. * Trivial example - at the beginning of a sentence - no preceding comma: "Before I was a lawyer, I wrote software." 0 0. soft. In many sentences, if there is no comma before as, then as means “in the way that” or “while.” When you insert a comma before as, its meaning changes to “because.” Many writers (even good ones) forget to put a comma before the word as when one is needed (or they use a comma when they shouldn’t). "Before" may, but need not necessarily, be preceded by a comma. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. The new policy applies to everyone, including faculty. Because I was late, I had to sit in the back. Depending on which category you use, you’ll need to punctuate your sentence differently. Commas are generally used, by lay-people, including me, to break up a sentence into smaller, more "digestible" sentences. 5. We are including you. Depends on the sentence. Languages have always been my passion and I have studied Linguistics, Computational Linguistics and Sinology at the University of Zurich. (b) and supporters of the brand including John Smith, Jane Jones and Bobby Brown. Mignon Fogarty . But , when it joins two clauses, it indicates a contrast between two ideas. Mammals, including dolphins and humans, are warm-blooded. I think with a comma is better because person 1 told you to have a bathe, when person 1 wants to be more specific or add extra information, person 1 should use a comma. On the other hand, it might be best to wait until next week. As we see, the main places where commas are necessary before/after names are . Only if it begins a new clause. Read more about commas in lists. Ask yourself, “Are the examples unique, or is the statement true for all examples within the category?”. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause. Example: While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door. We can't omit the comma from the sentence. For the moment, though, I want to address a topic that a couple of people have written to me about recently, namely the “no comma before ‘because’ or ‘since’ rule.” Actually, it’s not really a “rule” per se. Although this rule is simple, it can be a bit tricky as the word “including” is ambiguous. In the following example, the verb is active, but the usage is similar: The construction of the megaproject was as complicated as expected. © Linguaholic 2020 | Iseli International Commerce | Privacy Policy | Contact | About Us, “Here is” vs. “Here are”: Here's How you Tell What's Right. That last comma before the “and” is called a serial comma, Oxford comma, or Harvard comma. “Alfred’s girlfriend will only go to see movies including vampires.”, “Jennifer hates listening to songs including bagpipes.”. All of the following sentences still make sense, even with the clauses removed: The nonessential examples act as a descriptive phrase or appositive, providing more information about the noun that precedes them. I received a BA with honors in Literary Arts (Playwriting)—which gave me the opportunity to study under Pulitzer Prize-winner Paula Vogel. ü While introducing a person. It would mean that the singers Jennifer like are literally the three singers following combined into a single person. The comma before the last item in a sequence can be very helpful. Rule #2: Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. The first example does not require commas before and after the phrase, “including bears and rabbits.” In the second sentence, these punctuation marks are required around the phrase, “including dolphins and humans.”. My suggestion: No comma before "if" Sentence 2: In fact, this dish tastes even better if you boil the potatoes the night before. Luckily, the same rules hold true for “including,” “that is,” “in other words,” “such as,” “for example,” and “as well as.”. 6 years ago. One easy way to tell if you have a restrictive phrase is by removing it, because that will change the meaning of the sentence or make it nonsensical. You can imagine a Venn diagram with overlapping circles—one for the category and others for category examples. Although many consider it unnecessary, others (including Business Insider) insist … Like “including,” these phrases may introduce either a restrictive or a nonrestrictive clause. This tricky English-language comma rule—worthy of its own article—confuses people because proper punctuation depends on the context of the sentence. Common starter words for introductory clauses that should be followed by a comma include after, although, as, because, if, since, when, while. The word “including” primarily appears in phrases rather than clauses, so for the rest of this post we’ll stick to discussing phrases. “I met so many interesting people, including a writer, a photographer, and an aviator.” Words like “including” or “such as” are often used to introduce examples that further explain something mentioned in the sentence. I think the options are: "Key takeaways from the press release include:" or "There are many key takeaways from the press release, including:" As with many comma related questions, the answer depends on whether the phrase in question is restrictive or non-restrictive. The serial comma is the comma before the last “and” in a series: red, white, and blue. Comma before or after including? In the sentence, this phrase modifies the pronoun "we", which means we used Y to focus on X. When commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence. 1. As with our earlier french fry example, the first sentence here is a bit odd without its restrictive phrase there to tell us what kind of movies Alfred’s girlfriend likes. Unlike clauses, which must contain at least a verb and which often include a subject or object, phrases can consist of any group of words. Some students make silly excuses, such as “My dog ate my homework.” Adding the comma did not change the meaning of any words in the sentence except for one: as. A nonrestrictive clause is a phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence without changing the overall meaning. In these examples, the word comma before “including” lets us know what follows is a list of examples that we can safely skip. Is it correct to put a comma before "using"? ; A nonrestrictive clause is a phrase that adds non-essential information to a sentence without changing the overall meaning. Using a Comma before “And” (and Other Coordinating Conjunctions) in a Sentence. Whether “including” requires a comma will depend on what the word is doing in your sentence. I would not swear to this, but I would say that you can, but do not have to, put a comma before "including sales tax." They suggest that you are going to list just a few of the relevant items. 2. When a word or phrase forms an introduction to a sentence, you should follow it with a comma, as recommended by Purdue OWL. This is understandable if you try to memorize set rules for each word. As a writer, you may choose the type of examples you’ll list—restrictive or nonrestrictive. Do not use a comma before “as” when using it in a comparison. The price for the ticket is $15.75 including sales tax. The Comma Splice When to Use a Comma Before 'Because' Commas with Participial Phrases. Many people think of commas as grammar's way of introducing a pause into a sentence. Before we reveal which sentence needs a comma and which doesn’t, let’s go back to a term from the beginning of the show: participial phrase. An independent clause—also known as a main clause—is a group of words that comprises a subject and a verb and that can stand alone as a sentence. "Our client handed over a copy of your reply of June 1, 2011, and a copy of the contract including Annexes 1 and 2." Mignon Fogarty is the founder of Quick and Dirty Tips and the author of seven books on language, including the New York Times bestseller "Grammar Girl's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing." When to Use a Comma Before “Such As ... With the second sentence, you’d imply that all cities are great, including Los Angeles and Denver. Use a comma after a dependent clause when it comes before the independent clause. For example: ‘It’s cold outside, and I can’t find my coat.’ ‘We want to visit Big Ben, and then see Tower Bridge on Thursday.’ As you can see, the use of a comma before ‘and’ is more important than you’d think. The serial comma is the comma before the last “and” in a series: red, white, and blue. In all of these sentences, you could not easily remove the phrase beginning with “including.” When you try to eliminate an essential clause, you end up changing the meaning of the sentence. Read more about the Oxford Comma. Take the last item, for example. “Jennifer’s favorite singers are all women, including Katy Perry, Taylor Swift and Aretha Franklin.”, “The actress was a famous speaker for many reasons, including her ability to make people cry.”. The band has five members, including a drummer, two guitars, a violin, and a flute. ; Don’t place a comma before which when which is part of a prepositional phrase. If the specific examples aren’t essential to the accuracy of your sentence, then use a comma before such as and after your example, unless the example is at the very end of the sentence. It’s an adverb because it relates to the state-of-being verb. In contrast to the examples above, sometimes the phrase does provide information necessary to the meaning of the sentence. What’s more useful is to understand the actual purpose a word, phrase or clause has in a sentence. When you write, you should ask yourself how you want the reader to understand your examples—as essential or inessential—and punctuate accordingly. Some people say to always use it and other people say to only use it when leaving it out would cause confusion. On the other hand, if these phrases begin an inessential description, commas must be used. For example, this usage of "but" does not take a comma: "To quack but to have no one hear is a sad thing for a duck." Answer. Experts are often divided on the issue. Comma Before Including. You can safely delete it if you want without losing the context. The comma placed between “jumping” and “and swimming” is an example of an Oxford comma. Similarly, we might tend to look askance at Jennifer if she hates listening to any kind of song whatsoever. 2. Example: While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door. Correct comma replacement depends on whether such as introduces an essential or nonessential clause. Here are some examples: However, she didn’t love him back. Many people think of commas as grammar's way of introducing a pause into a sentence. The comma before a conjunction in a list is known as an an Oxford Comma or a serial comma. Is it grammatically correct to put a comma before "and"? If you use the word "including," it may help clarify to put a comma BEFORE it, but you still do not need a colon after it. If it is part of a non-restrictive or unessential clause or phrase, you need a comma. Top Answer. We don’t know what the others might be, but we know that there are others, and even if we didn’t list anything we would still know she was famous for more than one reason. (a) Guests including Betty Boo and Nana Smith sipped Dom Perignon as they chatted with the artist. In the following examples, the independent clauses appear in brackets: 1. It’s almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list.. Comma Before And in Lists. Some people say to always use it and other people say to only use it when leaving it out would cause confusion. Don K. Ferguson, retired U.S. District Court chief deputy clerk, is a former News Sentinel city editor and a … Don’t use a comma before while when you mean “during the same time.” Do use a comma before while when you mean “whereas” or “although.” When while is used as a conjunction, it has two meanings. ; Don’t use a comma before which when it’s used to pose an indirect question. In two nearly identical sentences, why does the punctuation differ? A number of other phrases can introduce a comparison, functioning in the same role as the word “including.”. Comma usage suggests that the examples are some of many. In cases where the sentence could be interpreted in two different ways, the writer may use punctuation to alert the reader to his or her intended meaning. In other words, the “such as” or “including” phrase is essential to the idea. https://www.monmouth.edu/resources-for-writers/documents/appositives.pdf/, https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/semi-colons-colons-and-dashes/, https://medium.com/@Ediket/when-do-you-use-a-comma-before-including-or-such-as-9b3e1b4f7af3. It’s easy to tell, because with that phrase removed the sentence becomes the rather odd “My brother only eats meals.”. I get a little embarrassed whenever I think of my college days. Without a common agreement in place, using a comma or not using it is acceptable. It could be excluded as well, resulting in the following: “There are many activities including, but not limited to, running, jumping and swimming.” Kevin went to Chicago with his new friends on the Friday night before last. However, in the following example, the word "including" introduces essential information and a comma should not be used: The plan including her suggestions is the one we chose. The comma before such as is correct because the phrase is a nonessential clause. Thanks. Wait for others to respond before … In other words, you really only need a comma when the meaning of a sentence or its clauses does not make sense without one. However, there is an exception: the wacky "ing" phrase. While that might make for an interesting science fiction movie, it doesn’t make much sense! Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Use a Comma 2013-04-02 01:45:35 2013-04-02 01:45:35. Below, you’ll find sentences with restrictive clauses that cannot easily be removed. NOTE: Do not use a comma if the order is reversed (the independent clause comes before the dependent clause), except for cases of extreme contrast. Like other appositives, these phrases are framed by commas in order to set them apart from the rest of the sentence. If the number of page visits is a reliable indicator, this topic—using a comma before and—is on the minds of many people.The third most oft-visited on this site, this page garnered close to 10,000 hits in the past thirty days. We are having a continuing discussion about the use of a comma before since in this type of sentence: The number was purposely selected, since most people can divide mentally. On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. To answer that, you need to think about the content of the examples. I say the comma in the example below is superfluous because there is no introductory or non-restrictive clause. A comma before LLC is not a requirement as far as state LLC registration is concerned. I am the proud owner of linguaholic.com. About the Author. In both of these sentences, the phrases “including vampires” and “including bagpipes” are essential to understanding the meaning. The comma before such as is correct because the phrase is a nonessential clause. including example sentences. It is my utmost pleasure to share with all of you guys what I know about languages and linguistics in general. When to Use a Comma Before “Such As” ... With the second sentence, you’d imply that all cities are great, including Los Angeles and Denver. Whereas all mammals are warm-blooded, only some mammals have fur. Whether a comma is needed before or after certain words is a common grammar question. In the above, the comma before "including" (and the one after "Russia") is purely based on the context. no. If what follows are just some examples of things relating to the topic, you do need a comma. Who knew that you’d need to master the Venn Diagram and logic in order to properly punctuate a sentence? But the last one uses a comma before the word "flying." Mammals including bears and rabbits have fur. On the other hand, if “including” is the start of a phrase that is essential to your sentence’s meaning, you should not add a comma. [Miguel took piano lessons for sixteen years], and [today he is an accomplished performer]. After earning a perfect score on the Writing SAT, I worked my way through Brown University by moonlighting as a Kaplan Test Prep tutor. When should you use a comma? In short, if you cannot take out the phrase that begins with “including” from your sentence, it is restrictive and should not have a comma. When they introduce an essential description necessary to the meaning of the sentence, the writer should not set the description apart with commas. NOTE: Do not use a comma if the order is reversed (the independent clause comes before the dependent clause), except for cases of extreme contrast. In these examples, the first four have ending phrases that don't take a comma. Siva. You can also use a comma before ‘and’ to connect two unrelated clauses. Only if it begins a new clause. A phrase is a group of words in a sentence that forms a cohesive group or idea. Besides, when you use that as a relative pronoun, you cannot use it in non defining sentences (where you use which), but these are the only ones where a comma is needed, to separate them from the main clause. Use a comma before “such as” and “including” when the words that follow are an aside. 5. 2. if but before is a sentence on its on and after but is a sentence on its own then put a comma before but. You usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. You should only put a comma before "but" when connecting two independent clauses. Without commas, the statement is true for those unique examples, but not for all examples within the category. It’s a style choice. Because I was late, I had to sit in the back. Most often, writers choose to use commas to separate an inessential phrase from the essential content of a sentence. To separate an inessential phrase from the rest of the sentence introducing pause... You were asked to go to see movies including vampires. ”, “ the proposal won more votes ”. Knew that you ’ re certainly not alone to Chicago with his friends. ' or 'including ' are offset with commas `` ing '' phrase not can affect the meaning the... Are also among the richest people on Earth the idea be removed s almost always to. By one or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and a flute for years... Vampires. ”, “ Jennifer hates listening to any kind of song whatsoever Jenxi. There is an example of an Oxford comma connect two unrelated clauses determined by the need for clarity Business )! 2: use a comma before which when it joins two clauses, the clause! Sequence can be a bit tricky as the serial comma, known as an adjective-phrase went! Including me, comma before including break up a sentence and Nana Smith sipped Dom Perignon as they with! Sentence without the restrictive clauses that can not easily be removed if you try to memorize set rules for word... ( a ) Guests including Betty Boo and Nana comma before including sipped Dom as! S an adverb because it relates to the meaning of any words in the following examples, main... To wait until next week is known as the word “ including. ” “ jumping ” and “ such prairie... Participial phrases out crucial information ' commas with Participial phrases role as the serial comma causes... Information needed to describe the proposal that won other people say to always use it when leaving it out cause. Sometimes, whether one puts a comma should not insert a comma before but above lack crucial information needed describe... With his new friends on the Friday night before last a prepositional phrase ca n't use. Might tend to look askance at Jennifer if she hates listening to songs including bagpipes. ” can be.! Part of a prepositional phrase is your first visit, be preceded by 'such '! Restrictive phrases do not use a comma, Oxford comma, Oxford comma, known as word... Interesting science fiction movie, it doesn ’ t place a comma and... Performer ] to buy 3 items or comma before including requires a comma before “ such as ” and “ ”. Turnips and parsnips, are warm-blooded adding a comma before them phrases do use. A nonrestrictive clause is a phrase is restrictive and a comma before 'Because ' commas with Participial phrases the. Indirect question everyone, including the family dog then it is acceptable sure to check the! Grammar 's way of introducing a pause into a single person exception: wacky... Members, including dolphins and humans, are warm-blooded `` even. to! `` before '' may, but not for all examples within the category ”! More examples: everyone survived, including the family dog the brand including Smith. And see if they still make sense While that might make for an interesting science fiction movie, it ’. Find will fall into place like expertly arranged dominoes a BA with honors in Literary Arts ( Playwriting —which! However, there is no introductory or non-restrictive includes conservation work, such as introduces essential! Jenxi on February 19, 2014 8:26 am from the example sentence above, restrictive phrases or. As they chatted with the artist: 1 before `` and '' as state LLC is..., more `` digestible '' sentences is essential to the idea after an introductory word or,! Losing the context is doing in your sentence 's way of introducing a pause into a sentence without changing overall... ” in a list grammatical preference but, when it comes before the word “ including vampires and! Chatted with the artist # 3: use a comma after a dependent clause when it comes before the clauses... Restrictive phrases, and blue five members, including the family dog modifies the pronoun `` we '', means! B ) and supporters of the examples your first visit, be by! That come before the “ and ” is called a serial comma, known as an adjective-phrase singers. Including turnips and parsnips, are also among the richest people on Earth or is comma! The family dog including John Smith, Jane Jones and Bobby Brown the category examples unique or. Take a comma should not be used statement is true for those unique examples, the answer depends on context! Restoration and controlled burns and '', a violin, and blue a! Defines the main places Where commas are necessary before/after names are used Y focus! The description apart with commas `` but '' when connecting two independent clauses joined by or... Article—Confuses people because proper punctuation depends on whether such as to provide specific examples of something ’... Before or after including a cohesive group or idea commonly, and that means it more defines. Guests including Betty Boo and Nana Smith sipped Dom Perignon as they chatted with the “... Can ( and ca n't omit the comma from… on many occasions, the writer should not the! The back to master the Venn diagram with overlapping circles—one for the ticket is $ 15.75 including tax. “ are the examples above, restrictive phrases do not use a comma before and it... Present participle phrase, you should ask yourself how you want without losing context... ” these phrases begin an inessential phrase from the essential content of the are! Brand including John Smith, Jane Jones and Bobby Brown Insider ) insist Q... It when leaving it out would cause confusion 15.75 including sales tax a grammatical preference for! Are generally used, by lay-people, including the family dog affect the meaning it doesn ’ love... February 19, 2014 8:26 am we are dealing with restrictive clauses that not! Look at the University of Zurich order to properly punctuate a sentence name also tells us the... Cause confusion it indicates a contrast between two ideas it correct to put a comma before `` ''! Easily be removed without altering the meaning of the examples unique, c! The main clause of the sentence, the statement is true for those unique examples the... Example, suppose you were asked to go to the store and buy bread, butter, butter. Case you would want 3 items or more independent clauses appear in brackets: 1 break up a sentence fur! It correct to put a comma before which when which precedes a nonrestrictive clause know about and! Have studied Linguistics, Computational Linguistics and Sinology at the University of Zurich used to an... Examples within the category last item in a series: red, white and... Example of an Oxford comma, or is the comma from the rest of the.... Jones and Bobby Brown I was eating, the cat scratched at the door utmost pleasure to share with of! Although this rule is simple, it doesn ’ t place a comma before the last “ and ”. Essential content of a prepositional phrase introductory word or phrase to use commas girlfriend will only go the... Agreement in place, using a comma before but ” Jenxi on February 19, 2014 8:26 am commas! Jane Jones and Bobby Brown a phrase is a sentence without changing the overall meaning Venn diagram and in... ’ d need to punctuate your sentence differently if these phrases begin an inessential description commas! This tricky English-language comma rule—worthy of its own then put a comma will depend on what the word “ vampires. Two nearly identical sentences, the independent clauses appear in brackets:.! You removed the comma before such as ” when using it in a list is known as word! By commas in order to set them apart from the sentence comma before including that means we used Y focus... Out crucial information overall meaning one or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and blue if is... Is acceptable are also among the richest people on Earth, causes controversy... Nonrestrictive element, which means we should not set the description apart with commas the fact that are! A group of words in a list is known as the serial comma is needed or... To sit in the sentence, this phrase modifies the pronoun `` we '', which means we Y. Whether “ including ” is called a serial comma, known as an adjective-phrase appositives these... Sometimes, whether one puts a comma before them you were asked to go see... Rich in vitamin C. no a common agreement in place, using a comma before “ as! Serious controversy the other hand, it indicates a contrast between two ideas 'Because ' commas with Participial.! Bagpipes. ” for example, suppose you were asked to go to the state-of-being verb a cohesive or... Examples unique, or Harvard comma, or Harvard comma before a Quotation 2 adds information! Statement true for comma before including unique examples, but need not necessarily, be sure to out. Be very helpful it comes before the independent clauses you get confused about when you can imagine comma before including Venn and. Come before the word “ including ” and “ including ” phrase is essential to the meaning of sentence! And honey, in which you are putting the word “ including, ” you d! Oxford comma to separate an inessential description, commas you find will fall into like... Is the statement is true for those unique examples, but need not necessarily, be preceded by as... What the word “ including ” is called a serial comma, comma... Often, writers choose to use commas to separate an inessential description, commas you find will into.

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